Extract from Ross-Shire Journal

In September 2019 an exhibition was held in the hall at Fearn Abbey to recall the life of Peter Fraser while Prime Minister in New Zealand during World War 2.

Peter Fraser came from a family directly affected by the Highland Clearances and developed a lifelong interest in politics from an early age.

On reaching New Zealand in 1911, in the hope of a better life, his active involvement for the betterment of workers’ lives led in time to his election into office. At the age of 34, he was the youngest Member of Parliament.

By August 1939, with the deterioration in the health of the Prime Minister of New Zealand, Michael Savage, Fraser virtually assumed the PM’s responsibilities. When Savage died in April 1940, Fraser took charge at an intense time in world history.

Britain’s wartime leader, Winston Churchill, once said that under the leadership of Fraser “New Zealand never put a foot wrong”. Fraser was the only Dominion Premier to survive the post-war elections.

He was a highly-respected founding father of the United Nations.

The exhibition depicted Fraser’s wartime contribution to the support of his own NZ troops through Canada and the UK, at Monte Cassino in Italy, and in Egypt.

[Extract courtesy of the Editor of the Ross-shire Journal]

Peter Fraser Statue

Statue of Peter Fraser    Attribution: unknown

Peter Fraser: Labourer, trade unionist, prisoner, journalist, politician, Prime Minister, UN founder

Peter Fraser, born in Hill of Fearn, became the 24th Prime Minister of New Zealand and a key figure in the founding of the United Nations. At the time of writing, he was also the 4th longest serving head of government and had been in office for a longer period of time than any other New Zealand Labour prime minister.

Date

Event

28 August 1884

Born in Hill of Fearn to his parents: Donald Fraser, his father, was a master shoemaker and was also a leading member of the local Liberal Association branch His mother was Isabella McLeod

His early years

He left school at an early age as he needed to contribute to the family income He was apprenticed to a carpenter but he continued his education by reading economics, Keir Hardie, John Burns, Robert Blatchford and other socialist writers

1907

Involved in farmworkers, agitation for the Small-Holding and Allotments Act Secretary to local branch of Liberal Association at the age of 16

Due to bad eyesight his apprenticeship ended and he left to go to London in search of work While in London he subscribed to socialist doctrines

1908

Joined Independent Labour Party

1910

Due to unemployed he decided to emigrate to New Zealand due to its reputation for social advancement

02/01/11

Landed in Auckland

During his early years in New Zealand he was known as Pat Fraser Found employment as labourer and a stevedore on the wharves in Auckland Joined New Zealand Socialist Party Elected president of the Auckland General Labourers' Union.  Was an incisive and forceful orator with an instinctive combativeness, ready wit and a sarcastic turn of phrase Shrewd and tireless organiser

1911

As part of his Union responsibilities he won substantial improvements in wages and conditions from the Portland Cement Company in July and August Acted as manager for M J Savage's campaign for the Auckland Central electorate as candidate of the Socialist Party. Campaign was unsuccessful.

1911-12

The union was in dispute with Auckland City Council.

1912

This union dispute was put into hands of the New Zealand Federation of Labour (the Red Fed) but in the meantime the council encouraged some workers to form a new union which had legal recognition. The old union lost members and in September Fraser was forced to resign. Fraser became an executive member of the New Zealand Federation of Labour His influence within the federation was growing and became its representative in Waihi during the Waihi miners' strike of 1912. Following violent confrontation between police and strikebreakers the federation's emergency committee (which included Fraser) sought a settlement as they recognised there was little support for a general strike. By this time he was jobless and without influence.

1913

Went to Wellington and started working on the wharves.

01/07/13

Fraser attended the 2nd Unity Congress which led to the foundation of the United Federation of Labour and the Social Democratic Party (SDP). He became treasurer of the SDP

11/11/13

Fraser and some of the other leaders were arrested for breach of the peace following a poorly supported general strike in 1913. He was bound over to keep the peace.

1914

Fraser was one of the labour leaders strongly opposed to the First World War, which he was an "imperialist" war and bitterly opposed conscription. During this time he worked hard to revitalise the SDP but its finances and organisation failed to improve

1916

He played a leading part in the July 1916 conference which formed the New Zealand Labour Party He was elected to the new party's national executive and remained a member until his death

01/08/16

Despite the strong opposition of the Labour Party The Military Service Act became law

01/12/16

Fraser, along with other prominent Labour leaders, was arrested for advocating the repeal of the Military Service law. He was charged with sedition and sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment which he served in full. While in prison Fraser was supplied with books by Thomas Hunter from Victoria University College whom he'd met through the work of the recently formed Workers' Educational Association (WEA).

01/12/17

When he left the gaol he found a role as a journalist, working for the official Labour Party newspaper.

1918

Saw Fraser's return to political activity including the organisation of the Labour Party campaign for H E Holland in the Wellington North and Grey by-election. The latter was successful. During the 1918 great influenza epidemic, which he survived, he showed personal courage and organising ability and brought order into the relief work which established his reputation as a tireless constituency worker and won him widespread respect.

01/10/18

Fraser was elected for Wellington Central which he held for the rest of his life.

01/04/19

He was elected to the Wellington City Council

1919

Acted as editor of the Maoriland Worker He was elected secretary of the Labour Party He led a movement on the Wellington council to establish a municipal milk distribution department. This remained in operation until the 1990s. He served as vice-president of the Labour Party.

01/11/19

He married Janet Henderson Munro, from Glasgow. They had no children together although Janet had a son from a previous marriage.

1920s

Throughout the 1920s he continued to write for Maoriland Worker and its successor, the New Zealand Worker. During this decade he developed formidable skills as a parliamentarian and became the party's most devastating debater. He was also a master of tactics and procedure. He played a major role in party organisation as became the party trouble-shooter. He and Walter Nash were probably the chief influencers in the formulation of policy. He served as president for the Labour Party from 1920 to 1921.

1921

He was re-elected to the council in Wellington.

1923

At the end of his term on the Wellington City Council was narrowly defeated for the post of Mayor of Wellington

01/03/27

Fraser toured the North Island with a message for farmers of assured markets and guaranteed prices

1927

He introduced an unemployed workers bill which embodied a scheme for contributory unemployment insurance.

1919 to 1935

He played a considerable role in the Labour Party

1930

He promoted a couple of programmes: The voter credit reform, and A humanitarian welfare programme

1933

He was elected as deputy leader of the party

1935 - 1936

Fraser was again elected to serve on the Wellington City Council, gaining more votes than any other candidate. He resigned from the council a year later to allow him to focus on his ministerial duties.

1935

The Labour took office and he was clearly the government's second in command. He took the following portfolios: Minister of Health Minister of Education Minister of External Affairs Minister of Island Territories Minister of Marine, and Minister of Police. In his first year in government Janet Fraser acted as a research assistant and adviser. He worked long hours from 8 am to 1 am, 7 days a week. He had a passionate belief in the part education had to play in social reform. Under his leadership cuts made during the depression were restored and many important reforms were made. Most importantly, access to secondary education was improved. He was awarded the King George V Silver Jubilee Medal

1937

He was awarded the King George VI Coronation Medal.

1938

The Social Security Act was passed and established a largely free national health service which was free at the point of use. Due to entrenched and bitter opposition of the New Zealand branch of the British Medical Association the new service had many problems. Janet, who had a long history of voluntary work in the fields of health and welfare, was a valuable adviser to her husband. He was a tough, realistic and effective negotiator and finally brought the doctors into the new scheme.

1939

Unknown to the general public, Prime Minister Savage was dying. In addition to his existing duties Fraser assumed the role of acting Prime Minister and directed the New Zealand war effort. He travelled to England to meet with Winston Churchill and Bernard Freyberg (who would be appointed commanding officer of the 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force) for talks on New Zealand's participation in the war.

27/03/40

An election saw him succeeding Savage as Prime Minister

1940

He became a member of the Privy Council as a Privy Counsellor Introduced censorship which was effectively controlled by the Prime Minister Fraser's ingenuity and persuasiveness drove forward the formation of a War Cabinet, War Council and War Administration.

February and June 1940

In order to secure public safety and efficient prosecution of the war he introduced emergency regulations establishing a formidable system of control over public expression of opinion. This gave the government virtually unlimited powers over people and property. One of these powers was Conscription was widely supported in the country

1939-45

During war years he forged close lines with Te Puea Herangi and other Maori leaders

01/12/41

Japan entered the war. Fraser made decision to leave the New Zealand Division in the Middle East rather than recalling them to be part of the Pacific theatre.

1943

Despite being in the midst of the war, Fraser fought and won a general election He was concerned that the larger countries, particularly Britain, viewed the New Zealand military as an extension of their own. He clarified crucial questions about deployment and control of New Zealand forces and the concept of dominion status in wartime by spelling out to the British authorities Bernard Freyberg's responsibilities on reporting to the New Zealand government on any plans for actions involving New Zealand troops.

1944

The Australian - New Zealand Agreement and Fraser sought to ensure that both Australian and New Zealand interests in the Pacific wouldn't be overlooked. Fraser's government proposed to adopt the Statute of Westminster 1931 to allow New Zealand to gain greater constitutional independence. This proposal was buried due to opposition by the National Party, who, ironically, then proposed it themselves through a private members' bill. He helped settle the longstanding Taranaki and Ngai Tahu land claims.

1945

He was one of the architects of the United Nations and a contributor to the UN Charter. Conference in San Francisco established the United Nations. At meetings of the United Nations General Assembly he was a leader of small nations opposing the granting of veto rights to the great powers. He also sought, unsuccessfully, to strengthen the peace-keeping functions of the UN, by binding all members to come to the aid of a victim of aggression. He chaired the committee that led to the establishment of the Trusteeship Council and set up the UN Economic and Social Council. He placed Western Samoa within the trusteeship system setting it on its road to independence. He also played an important part in elevating the status of the Economic and Social Council to that of a principal body of the UN Around this time Fraser was often ill and spent some time in hospital, which in some sources has been attributed to exhaustion. He played large part in introduction and passing of the Maori Social and Economic Advancement Act which allowed Maori involvement and control over welfare programmes and other assistance. This year also saw the death of his wife, Janet

1946

He played an active part in a settlement of the Waikato confiscation claim. His government narrowly survived a general election He had long term interest in Maori concerns and he added Minister of Native Affairs to his responsibilities He was appointed as a Member of the Order of the Companions of Honour

1947

On Fraser's initiative the Department of Native Affairs was renamed as the Department for Maori Affairs The Statute of Westminster 1931 was adopted.

1949

He forced a proposal for conscription through the Labour Party conference but had to promise a national referenced which his government backed a 'Yes' vote. His victory in this matter left his party split and in disarray.

01/12/49

His government was heavily defeated, and he became leader of the opposition.

1950

He suffered a number of health problems including hospitalisation with influenza

12/12/50

He died in Wellington from a heart attack following his hospitalisation with influenza, and is buried in Karori Cemetery, Wellington, New Zealand. His body lay in state in the New Zealand Parliament Buildings for three days. He had a state funeral service conducted by the Moderator of the Presbyterian Church.

Throughout the research for this article I think the best summary I found of Peter Fraser was the following by Gavin McLean from the nzhistory.govt.nz article:

“Fraser had his quirks. Authoritarian, devious and secretive, he worked punishing hours, was disorganised, conducted too much business orally and was addicted to attending funerals.”

References:

Tim Beaglehole. ‘Fraser, Peter’, Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/4f22/fraser-peter (accessed 7 May 2019)

‘Peter Fraser’, URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Fraser , Last Updated: 3 April 2019 (accessed 8 May 2019)

‘Peter Fraser’, URL: https://nzhistory.govt.nz/people/peter-fraser, (Ministry for Culture and Heritage), updated 8-Nov-2017 (accessed 8 May 2019)

‘Future prime minister charged with sedition’, URL: https://nzhistory.govt.nz/future-prime-minister-peter-fraser-charged-with-sedition, (Ministry for Culture and Heritage), updated 22-Dec-2017 (accessed 8 May 2019)

Peter Fraser. (n.d.). Retrieved April 09th, 2019, from http://biography.yourdictionary.com/peter-fraser (accessed 8 May 2019)

Peter Fraser, 24th Prime Minister of New Zealand

Peter Fraser, 24th Prime Minister of New Zealand    Attribution: unknown

Fraser Cottage, Fearn with inset showing plaque on wall.  Plaque reads: Peter Fraser, Prime Minister of New Zealand 1940 - 1949 was born in this house 28th August 1884

Fraser cottage, birthplace of Peter Fraser    Attribution: S Fraser